In France, the principle is the freedom of prices choice for the professionals. This freedom knows some limits for example: the prohibition of resale at a loss or the protection of consumers against price promotions: known as discounts and sales.

I- prohibition of resale at a loss

Article L 442-2 of the French Commercial Code provides for a fine for those who resell or announce a resale at a price lower than their actual purchase price.
The objective of this regulation of resale at a loss: to protect the small merchant from the large stores that practice call prices. Large supermarkets can afford to charge a call price on flagship products, and for that they can even afford to resell certain products at a loss. Today in France, the call price is possible but on the condition of not reaching the threshold of resale at a loss.
Art L 442-2 Commercial Code therefore provides for a fine of 75,000 €, which can be increased to half the advertising expenses.
Certain products by their nature constitute exceptions to the prohibition of resale at a loss: perishable products or obsolete products for example.

II- Price promotions

1- Discount

Subject to all the provisions contained in the order of March 11th, 2015 «any announcement of price reduction is lawful provided that it does not constitute an unfair commercial practice and that it is consistent with the provisions of the said order». We owe to the decree of 2015 the obligation of a double marking: the reference price must be verifiable and the price reduced, except when the discount is announced as being made at the checkout.

2- Sales

Sales are subject to the Unfair Trade Practices Regulations and the March 11th 2015 Order. Defined in article L 310-3 of the French Consumer Code "Sales that are accompanied or preceded by advertising are considered to be sales and are advertised as tending, by a price reduction, to the accelerated disposal of goods in stock." The sales constitute an exception to the prohibition of resale at a loss, they are therefore fixed by an order of the Minister for the Economy for two periods of a year ranging from 3 to 6 weeks.